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IP Address Setup:


The DSL-G604T is designed to provide network administrators maximum flexibility for IP addressing on the Ethernet LAN. The easiest IP setup choice in most cases is to let the Router do it using DHCP, which is enabled by default. This appendix briefly describes various options including DHCP, used for IP setup on a LAN. If you are new to IP networking, the next appendix provides some background information on basic IP concepts.

Assigning Network IP Addresses:


The IP address settings, which include the IP address, subnet mask and gateway IP address are the first and most important internal network settings that need to be configured. The Router is assigned a default LAN IP address and subnet mask. If you do not have a preexisting IP network and are setting one up now, using the factory default IP address settings can greatly ease the setup process. If you already have a preexisting IP network, you can adjust the IP settings for the Router to fit within your existing scheme.

Using the Default IP Address:


The Router is shipped with a preset default IP address setting of 192.168.1.1 for the LAN port. There are two ways to use this default IP address, you can manually assign an IP address and subnet mask for each PC on the LAN or you can instruct the Router to automatically assign them using DHCP. The simplest method is to use DHCP. The DHCP function is active by default.

Manual IP Address Assignment:


Manually configuring IP settings for the LAN means you must manually set an IP address, subnet mask and IP address of the default gateway (the Router’s IP address) on each networked computer. The example listed below describes IP configuration for computers running Windows 95 or Windows 98. Regardless of what operating system is used on each workstation, the three network IP settings must be defined so the network interface used by each workstation can be identified by the Router, and vice versa. For detailed information about configuring your workstations IP settings, consult the user’s guide included with the operating system or the network interface card (NIC).

1. In Windows 95/98, click on the Start button, go to Settings and choose Control Panel.


2. In the window that opens, double-click on the Network icon.


3. Under the Configuration tab, select the TCP/IP component and click Properties.


4. Choose the Specify an IP address option and edit the address settings accordingly. Consult the table below for IP settings on a Class C network.


Using Default IP without DH

Host IP Address Subnet Mask Gateway IP
Router 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0  
Computer #1 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
Computer #2 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
Computer #3 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1

IP Setup - Example #1


Please note that when using the default IP address as in the above example, the first three numbers in the IP address must always be the same with only the fourth number changing. The first three numbers define the network IP address (all machines must belong to the same IP network), while the last number denotes the host IP address (each computer must have a unique address to distinguish it on the network). The IP address scheme used in Example #1 can be used for any LAN that requires up to 253 separate IP addresses (excluding the Router). Notice that the subnet mask is the same for all machines and the default gateway address is the LAN IP address of the Router.

It is a good idea to make a note of each device’s IP address for reference during troubleshooting or when adding new stations or devices.

Using DHCP

The second way to use the default settings is to allow the Router to automatically assign IP settings for workstation using DHCP. To do this, simply make sure your computers’ IP addresses are set to 0.0.0.0 (under Windows, choose the option Obtain an IP address automatically in the TCP/IP network component described above). When the computers are restarted, their IP settings will automatically be assigned by the Router. The Router is set by default to use DHCP. See the discussion in Chapter 5 for information on how to use configure the Router for DHCP.

Changing the IP Address of the Router

When planning your LAN IP address setup, you may use any scheme allowed by rules that govern IP assignment.

It may be more convenient or easier to remember an IP scheme that use a different address for the Router. Or you may be installing the Router on a network that has already established the IP settings. Changing the IP address is a simple matter and can be done using the web manager. If you are incorporating the Router into a LAN with an existing IP structure, be sure to disable the DHCP function. Also, consider the effects of the NAT function which is enable by default.

An IP addressing scheme commonly used for Ethernet LANs establishes 10.0.0.1 as the base address for the network. Using Example #2 below, the Router is assigned the base address 10.0.0.1 and the remaining addresses are assigned manually or using DHCP.

Alternative IP Assignment

Host IP Address Subnet Mask Gateway IP
Router 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0  
Computer #1 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
Computer #2 10.0.0.3 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.1
Computer #3 10.0.0.4 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.1

IP Setup - Example #2


These two examples are only examples you can use to help you get started. If you are interested in more advanced information on how to use IP addressing on a LAN there are numerous resources freely available on the Internet. There are also many books and chapters of books on the subject of IP address assignment, IP networking and the TCP/IP protocol suite.

IP Concepts

This appendix describes some basic IP concepts, the TCP/IP addressing scheme and shows how to assign IP Addresses.

When setting up the Router, you must make sure it has a valid IP address. Even if you will not use the WAN port (ADSL port), you should, at the very least, make sure the Ethernet LAN port is assigned a valid IP address. This is required for telnet, in-band SNMP management, and related functions such as “trap” handling and TFTP firmware download.

IP Addresses

The Internet Protocol (IP) was designed for routing data between network sites all over the world, and was later adapted for routing data between networks within any site (often referred to as “subnetworks” or “subnets”). IP includes a system by which a unique number can be assigned to each of the millions of networks and each of the computers on those networks. Such a number is called an IP address.

To make IP addresses easy to understand, the originators of IP adopted a system of representation called “dotted decimal” or “dotted quad” notation. Below are examples of IP addresses written in this format:

201.202.203.204           189.21.241.56           125.87.0.1


Each of the four values in an IP address is the ordinary decimal (base 10) representation of a value that a computer can handle using eight “bits” (binary digits — 1s and 0s). The dots are simply convenient visual separators.

Zeros are often used as placeholders in dotted decimal notation; 189.21.241.56 can therefore also appear as 189.021.241.056.

IP networks are divided into three classes on the basis of size. A full IP address contains a network portion and a “host” (device) portion. The network and host portions of the address are different lengths for different classes of networks, as shown in the table below.

G604T


Networks attached to the Internet are assigned class types that determine the maximum number of possible hosts per network. The previous figure illustrates how the net and host portions of the IP address differ among the three classes. Class A is assigned to networks that have more than 65,535 hosts; Class B is for networks that have 256 to 65534 hosts; Class C is for networks with less than 256 hosts.

IP Network Classes

Class Maximum Number of Networks in Class Network Addresses (Host Portion in Parenthesis) Maximum Number of Hosts per Network
A 126 1(.0.0.0) to 126(.0.0.0) 16,777,214
B 16,382 128.1(.0.0) to 191.254(.0.0) 65,534
C 2,097,150 192.0.1(.0) to 223.255.254(.0) 254

Note: All network addresses outside of these ranges (Class D and E) are either reserved or set aside for experimental networks or multicasting.


When an IP address's host portion contains only zero(s), the address identifies a network and not a host. No physical device may be given such an address.

The network portion must start with a value from 1 to 126 or from 128 to 223. Any other value(s) in the network portion may be from 0 to 255, except that in class B the network addresses 128.0.0.0 and 191.255.0.0 are reserved, and in class C the network addresses 192.0.0.0 and 223.255.255.0 are reserved.

The value(s) in the host portion of a physical device's IP address can be in the range of 0 through 255 as long as this portion is not all-0 or all-255. Values outside the range of 0 to 255 can never appear in an IP address (0 to 255 is the full range of integer values that can be expressed with eight bits).

The network portion must be the same for all the IP devices on a discrete physical network (a single Ethernet LAN, for example, or a WAN link). The host portion must be different for each IP device — or, to be more precise, each IP-capable port or interface — connected directly to that network.

The network portion of an IP address will be referred to in this manual as anetwork number; the host portion will be referred to as a host number.

To connect to the Internet or to any private IP network that uses an Internet-assigned network number, you must obtain a registered IP network number from an Internet-authorized network information center. In many countries you must apply through a government agency, however they can usually be obtained from your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

If your organization's networks are, and will always remain, a closed system with no connection to the Internet or to any other IP network, you can choose your own network numbers as long as they conform to the above rules.

If your networks are isolated from the Internet, e.g. only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP Addresses to hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP Addresses specifically for private (stub) networks:

Class Beginning Address Ending Address
A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


It is recommended that you choose private network IP Addresses from the above list. For more information on address assignment, refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.

Subnet Mask

In the absence of subnetworks, standard TCP/IP addressing may be used by specifying subnet masks as shown below.

IP Class Subnet Mask
Class A 255.0.0.0
Class B 255.255.0.0
Class C 255.255.255.0


Subnet mask settings other than those listed above add significance to the interpretation of bits in the IP address.

The bits of the subnet mask correspond directly to the bits of the IP address. Any bit an a subnet mask that is to correspond to a net ID bit in the IP address must be set to 1.



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